As a career military officer for most of his life, he moved often, and the 20 years he lived at Springfield was the longest period he ever stayed in one place.
A hero of the Mexican War, Taylor was the first professional military man elected president and the first not previously elected to any office. A strong nationalist, in spite of being a slave holder himself, he opposed the extension of slavery into the territories newly acquired from Mexico and threatened to use military force against secessionists to preserve the Union.
He died suddenly in July cutting short his controversial term in office. Born in Virginia inZachary Taylor was just a baby when his family moved to a acre farm on Muddy Fork of Beargrass Creek just east of the village of Louisville, Kentucky.
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His planter father built the earliest part of the two and one-half story brick house, named Springfield, c. Richard Taylor prospered, and by the s increased his farm to acres and doubled the size of the house. Zachary Taylor received an elementary education from tutors. At Springfield, he learned to ride, shoot, and hunt-practical skills that would later prove useful in his military career.
As a teenager, he joined the Kentucky militia, and in entered the United States Army. Two years later on leave, he returned to Springfield to marry Margaret Mackall Smith. Five of their six children were born at his childhood home. Taylor probably returned periodically to visit his father, who continued to live at Springfield until his death inwhen the family sold the plantation.
At the end of the war, he left the army and returned to Kentucky to farm a acre plantation not far from Springfield that he had received as a wedding present. Soon after, Taylor rejoined the army. For the next 20 years, Taylor served at various garrison posts from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico. InTaylor triumphed again at Buena Vista, even after Polk stripped him of most of his Regulars. Near the end of the year, with the escalating tension between the two men, Taylor retired from the military.
He asserted that he would be a national rather than a partisan president and that principle would prevail over party and politics.
Ever independent, upon winning the election, Taylor promptly began pursuing his own ideals.
Although a slaveholder himself, Taylor rejected a congressional compromise on the extension of slavery into the territories taken from Mexico. His most serious problems were California and New Mexico. Inthe California gold rush began, increasing the urgency to establish government in the west.
In order to avoid bitter debates over the status of slavery in Federal territories, Taylor encouraged California and New Mexico to bypass territorial status and enter the Union as states as soon as possible. He sent word to residents of the two areas that they should decide the slavery issue for themselves.
When southerners objected to admission of California as a free state, Taylor threatened to use military force if necessary to uphold the law and the union. Taylor fell ill in after attending a July 4 celebration at the Washington Monument and died five days later. He and his wife lie buried in the family burial grounds at Springfield, now part of the Zachary Taylor National Cemetery. The Zachary Taylor house is a two and one-half story brick building.
The slightly projecting original section dating from around consisted of two rooms on the first and second floors. Some time, probably between andan extension to the east of the house added two more rooms on each floor and a broad central stair hall. A two story wooden porch it attached to the rear of the house. Ina tornado caused severe damage to the now restored house. Originally located on a 1,acre plantation, the Taylor house now has substantial houses on large lots surrounding it.
Springfield has been designated a National Historic Landmark.
Click here for the National Historic Landmark registration file: The family burial ground where Taylor and his wife are buried was originally part of Springfield plantation.
The plantation was subdivided in the 20th century, and the half-acre burial ground, which includes a tomb and mausoleum, is now part of the Zachary Taylor National Cemetery at Brownsboro Road, Louisville, KY, about half a mile away from the house. The State of Kentucky erected a foot granite monument near the Taylor burial site inand the U.
The cemetery is open for visitation from sunrise to sunset year round. For further information call or visit the Zachary Taylor National Cemetery website. His rugged and beautiful "beloved island" is located in Passamaquoddy Bay, which forms the border between the State of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. He came first with his father and mother, then with his wife and children.
Here he fell ill with polio that left him partially paralyzed at the age of A group of New York and Boston entrepreneurs bought most of the southern part of Campobello Island in and began to develop it as a resort area for families from New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Ottawa, and Montreal.
He soon bought land and built his own cottage. Franklin visited the island for the first time when he was only a year old. His parents soon began to spend whole summers there.
Growing up on the island, Franklin lived an active life and acquired his life-long love of the sea and sailing.
InFranklin D. Roosevelt moved his growing family to his own house on the island, a two-story frame Dutch-Colonial cottage built in Hartman Kuhn, of Boston, built the house in West elevation view of the Cottage Roosevelt Campobello International Park Commission The shingle-covered frame house provided comfortable rooms, abundant light and air, beautiful views, and many picturesque verandas.
Stylistically it resembles the Dutch Colonial houses that Franklin particularly loved.
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Between andFranklin Roosevelt added a new wing, which blends well with the original house. The cottage was comfortable, but had neither electricity nor a telephone.
Providing running water for bathing, cooking, and cleaning required a windmill or pump and a complex system of storage tanks in the attic. Seven fireplaces and the kitchen stove provided the only sources of heat. Franklin, Eleanor, and their growing family spent summers in the cottage from to Roosevelt Presidential Library In Augusthe arrived in Campobello for his first extended visit in more than a decade. After an ocean swim one day, he developed a high fever and his legs grew weak. Presently it refused to work, and then the other.
The disease left him permanently disabled, and he never walked again without assistance. It took Roosevelt years of physical therapy to overcome the effects of the disease. He worked hard at strengthening his upper body and regained some use of his legs, particularly after he began going to Warm Springs, Georgia to swim in the healing waters. He directed and inspired the March of Dimes that eventually developed a vaccine that almost eradicated this once dreaded disease.
At his insistence, few people in the United States knew of his paralysis. The press conspired to ensure that no pictures of the president in his wheel chair showed up in the newspapers, and no one ever mentioned his painful struggles to walk, weighed down with heavy leg braces and leaning heavily on aides.
Roosevelt did not return to Campobello for over 10 years. The president spent much of the trip at the helm. His stay was too short, but the seclusion and serenity of Campobello provided needed respite during the national crisis of the Great Depression. His final brief visits occurred in andthough his family continued to use the house until The next year, President John F.
Kennedy suggested that the home be preserved as a memorial to Roosevelt and as an expression of international peace and good will between the United States and Canada. A joint Canada-United States commission maintains and administers the park today.
The larger part of the 2,acre park is a natural area offering a variety of habitats to explore. Five historic turn-of-the-century cottages, including the Roosevelt Cottage, make up the historic core of the Roosevelt Campobello International Park. Interpretation at the Roosevelt Cottage concentrates on the s, though the period of significance for the house extends from the s to the s.
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It is the only park in the world owned by the peoples of two countries and administered by a joint commission in their name. The best way to reach the park is by car; no public transportation is available. The visitor center is located approximately two miles from the bridge. The customs station is located at the southern end of the island. There is no admission fee for the park. The Visitor Center is open the Saturday prior to U. Memorial Day through U. Columbus Day from 9: Columbus Day through October 31 from 9: The Roosevelt Cottage is open the Saturday prior to U.
Stationed throughout the cottage, guides answer questions and provide interpretation of the house and its furnishings.
The Roosevelts enjoyed hiking, biking, canoeing, and many other outdoor recreations, some of the main reasons that they spent their summers on Campobello.
These activities can still be enjoyed in the park today. Visitors can see coastal headland, rocky shore, sphagnum bog, field, and forest. The Roosevelt Campobello International Park Commission website provides detailed information about facilities, activities, and more. Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including estimated dates or date ranges for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle.
Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included. The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here - including the listed dating ranges - are noted. Additional information and estimates are based on the empirical observations of the author over 50 years of experience; this is often but not always noted. Various terminology is used in the descriptions that may be unfamiliar if you have not studied other pages on this site.
If a term is unfamiliar, first check the Bottle Glossary page for an explanation or definition. As an alternative, one can do a search of this website.