You can go to the AMSAT website and look at the status of the satellites as well as recent reports of which satellites have been heard. On this same website you can also find more information about the particular satellite that you are interested in. For example, whether the satellite requires any CTCSS tones that need to be used in order to activate the transponder and to talk through the satellite. First you need to find out which satellites will be passing over your location and when.
There are free software programs like Gpredict which you can install on your computer and once set up you will be able to select which satellites you want predictions for. It will be preferable if you have an internet connection over which you can download the updates of the Keplerian Elements. Alternatively you can enter your location on the AMSAT website and get a prediction of when the satellite you are interested in will be overhead.
Now that you know when the satellite that you want to use will be passing overhead, you can start getting ready to see if you can receive it.
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You can make a successful satellite contact using a dual band hand-held radio with an antenna other than the rubber duck antenna normally supplied with the radio. Let us take a satellite like SO as an example. The uplink frequency is the one that you will transmit on and the downlink frequency is the one that you will be receiving on.
The satellites transmit with low power, typical as in the case of SO it is in the region of mW. You therefore need to disable the squelch on your radio to be able to hear these weak, but readable signals. You then need an antenna that is better than the rubber duck antenna that you received with your radio. Here there are a number of options available to you. A telescopic whip antenna is a good start.
You can even look at a homebrew Arrow style antenna. The Arrow style antennas are dual band handheld yagi antennas and will be a great improvement over a whip or rubber duck antenna.
Next you need to set up your radio to be able to tune for the Doppler effect. You need to start listening to the satellite 10 kHz above the centre frequency. This will allow you to hear the satellite sooner and clearer. As the satellite passes overhead you will hear that the downlink signal will start to get scratchy and then you need to tune down in 5 kHz steps to improve your reception. You need to keep tuning down in frequency as the satellite passes ending up around 10 kHz below the centre frequency at the end of the pass.
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If you are using a whip antenna, then you must not hold your antenna upright. If you are facing the direction in which the satellite will appear then you will get better results if you tilt your radio and antenna down towards the ground so that your antenna is more or less perpendicular to the satellite. Should you have your back to the approaching satellite then your antenna needs to be tilted upwards at about 45 degrees, again so that your antenna is perpendicular to the approaching satellite.
If you are using an Arrow style antenna, then you will need to point it at the approaching satellite and track the satellite as it passes overhead to maintain a good received signal. At this stage it would be a good idea to first practise tracking and tuning for the Doppler effect before attempting to transmit.
You should also familiarise yourself with the quick voice procedures used when making contacts via the satellites. Satellite passes only last 7 - 15 minutes so there is no time for rag chewing. You can also program successive memory channels on your radio with the required frequencies and the changing receive frequencies to account for the Doppler effect.
This will make it simpler to tune your radio. You now just need to keep pressing the memory up or down button to keep you radio tuned to the satellites changing frequency. Right, now you have everything set-up and you have practised tracking the satellite and tuning for the Doppler effect and you are ready to make your first contact.
Remember, if you cannot hear the satellite, then do not transmit. When you hear the satellite and there is a QSO in progress wait for a break and then announce your call sign and grid locator using the international phonetic alphabet. On FM satellites it is not necessary to call CQ. You exchange call signs and grid locators when there are many stations on a pass. If there are few stations trying to work the satellite, then you can exchange more information like name, city and province.
Let us now look at some news about VHF and Above bands Mike has the following setup 6m — W into a 4 element Yagi, 2m — 90W into a 6 element horizontal Yagi and 70cm — 20W into an 11 element horizontal Yagi. All antennas are around 9m above ground level. Nothing heard, even via Morse Code. We both gave several calls between The rest of the week does not look encouraging, but on the bright side, it makes long distance contacts all the more exiting, and rewarding when you do make contact.
Therefore, keep your Sunnyside Up, and keep trying. You Snooze, You Loose. Well that is all the VHF and Above news for this week. Let us hope that activity will pick up as the spring approaches. Please send your news snippets and information about activities on VHF and Above including information for the tutorial to vhfnews sarl.
The population of Thailand was estimated to be 68, It is concentrated in the rice growing areas of the central, northeastern, and northern regions. Its urban population—principally in greater Bangkok—was Accurate statistics are difficult to arrive at, as millions of Thai migrate from rural areas to cities, then return to their place of origin to help with seasonal field work.
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Officially they have rural residency, but spend most of the year in urban areas. At the time of the census, the figure was down to 3.
Even though Thailand has one of the better social security systems in Asia, the increasing population of elderly people is a challenge for the country. Ninety percent of them are ages 20—24, the youngest range of the workforce.
An aggressive public education campaign begun in the earlys reduced the number of new HIV infections fromto under 10, annually. A study by the Child Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Centre of Ramathibodi Hospital revealed that more than 1, youths under 15 years old died from drowning each year, or an average four deaths a day, becoming the top cause of deaths of children, even exceeding that of motorbike deaths.
Thailand's Disease Control Department estimates that only 23 percent of Thai children under 15 can swim. The Fiscal Policy Office projects that the number of Thais aged plus will increase from 14 percent in to Ethnic groups in Thailand Ethnological map of Thailand, Thailand 's ethnic origins are diverse and continue to evolve.
The nation's ethnic makeup is obscured by the pressures of ThaificationThai nationalism, and social pressure, which is intertwined with a caste -like mentality assigning some groups higher social status than others. In its report to the United Nations for the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discriminationthe Thai government officially recognized 62 ethnic communities.
Thus, though over 3. In descending order, the largest equal to or greater thanare a 15, Lao Chinese origins as evidenced by surname were erased in the s by royal decree. Fourteen percent of Thais may have Chinese origins.
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Those assigned Thai ethnicity in the census process made up the vast majority of the population in The vast majority of the Isan people, one-third of Thailand's population, are of ethnic Lao  with some Khmer minority. They speak the Isan language. Additionally there have been more recent waves of immigration from Vietnam and Cambodia across porous borders due to wars and subsequent poverty over the last few decades, whose immigrants have tried to keep a low profile and blend in.
In more recent years the Isan people began mixing with the rest of the nation as urbanization and mobility increase. Myanmar's numerous ethnic wars between the army and tribes who speak more than 40 languages and control large fiefdoms or states, has led to waves of immigrants seeking refuge or work in Thailand. The makeup of Myanmar nationals is complex and includes, for example, people of Nepali ethnicity who escaped Nepal, entered Myanmar, and then emigrated to Thailand.
An additional 1, Myanmar nationals of all ethnicities, 40, Laotians, andCambodians were without legal work authorization, but also worked and resided in Thailand.
The language of the central Thai population is the educational and administrative language. Other dialects of Thai exist, most notably the Southern Thai language. Malay- and Yawi-speaking Muslims of the south are another significant minority group 2. Other groups include the Khmer ; the Monwho are substantially assimilated with the Thai, and the Vietnamese. Smaller mountain-dwelling tribessuch as the Hmong and Mienas well as the Karennumber aboutSomeHmong were to have received citizenship in A number of nationals from China are able to physically blend in after learning Thai claiming to be Thai themselves.
Significant numbers of Filipinos work in Thailand due to their English-language skills, as well as technical workers from Japan and Korea. Thousands of Japanese also have retired in Thailand. In recent years there has been a large influx of Russian-speaking retirees and extended-stay tourists in the kingdom.
Languages of Thailand Thailand is dominated by languages of the Southwestern Tai family. Karen languages are spoken along the border with Burma, Khmer is spoken near Cambodia and previously throughout central Thailandand Malay in the south near Malaysia.
The Thai hill tribes speak numerous small languages, many Chinese retain varieties of Chinese, and there are half a dozen sign languages. Thailand has 73 living languages. Godefroi was designated as heir by his maternal uncle, on whose death in he inherited the county of Verdun, the allods of Stenay and Mouzay, and the castle of Bouillon with its dependencies.
The inheritance was disputed by many parties. Theoderic Bishop of Verdun seized the opportunity to end the hereditary succession in the county of Verdun by bestowing it on Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, who granted it to Albert III Comte de Namur as guardian of her interests in Lotharingia. After arriving outside Constantinople at Selymbria in Dechis army ravaged the countryside. His troops were defeated by an imperial force, and Godefroi was obliged to swear allegiance to the emperor on Easter Sunday and agree that the emperor should become overlord of any new principalities founded by the crusaders, also conceding that any land captured which had previously belonged to the empire should be handed back to Byzantium .
The crusading army reached Jerusalem 7 Jun The whole issue of Godefroi's title is discussed at length by Riley-Smith and Murray . Whatever the interest of this debate, its practical importance was swept aside when Godefroi's brother was crowned "King of Jerusalem" within a year. The crusaders' control over Jerusalem was strengthened by their defeat of the Fatimid army from Egypt in the plain of al-Majdal 11 Aug .