The Civilization Fund Act of promoted this civilization policy by providing funding to societies mostly religious who worked on Native American education, often at schools established in or near Native American communities.
Moses Tom sent his children to an Indian boarding school. Be assured you will support them better and with less labor, by raising stock and bread, and by spinning and weaving clothes, than by hunting. A little land cultivated, and a little labor, will procure more provisions than the most successful hunt; and a woman will clothe more by spinning and weaving, than a man by hunting. Compared with you, we are but as of yesterday in this land.
Yet see how much more we have multiplied by industry, and the exercise of that reason which you possess in common with us.
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Follow then our example, brethren, and we will aid you with great pleasure Andrew White of the Society of Jesus established a mission in what is now the state of Marylandand the purpose of the mission, stated through an interpreter to the chief of a Native American tribe there, was "to extend civilization and instruction to his ignorant race, and show them the way to heaven.
Mary's, and Native Americans were sending their children there "to be educated among the English",  including the daughter of the Pascatoe chief Tayac. This was either a school for girls, or an early co-ed school. The same records report that in"a school for humanities was opened by our Society in the centre of [Maryland], directed by two of the Fathers; and the native youth, applying themselves assiduously to study, made good progress.
Maryland and the recently established school sent two boys to St. Omer who yielded in abilities to few Europeans, when competing for the honour of being first in their class. So that not gold, nor silver, nor the other products of the earth alone, but men also are gathered from thence to bring those regions, which foreigners have unjustly called ferocious, to a higher state of virtue and cultivation.
Undated photograph taken at Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Harvard College had an "Indian College" on its campus in the mids, supported by the English Society for Propagation of the Gospel. Its few Native American students came from New England, at a time when higher education was very limited for all classes and colleges were more similar to today's high schools.
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InCaleb Cheeshahteaumuck"from the Wampanoag Other schools were created in the East, where Indian reservations were less common than they became in the late nineteenth century in western states. West of the Mississippi, schools near indigenous settlements and on reservations were first founded by religious missionarieswho believed they could extend education and Christianity to Native Americans. Some of their efforts were part of the progressive movement after the Civil War.
As Native Americans were forced onto reservations following the Indian Warsmissionaries founded additional schools with boarding facilities, as children were enrolled very far from their communities and were not permitted to travel home or receive parental visitation.
Pratt said in a speech in"A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one. In a sense, I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: Kill the Indian in him and save the man. Hampton Institute was established in the s and in its original form, created a formal education program for Native Americans in at the end of the American Indian Wars. Essentially they were considered hostages to persuade their peoples in the West to keep peace. From this funding Hampton was able to grow into a university, though over time the student population shifted to African-American students.
At the prison, he tried to inculcate Native Americans with Anglo-American culture, while giving them some leeway to govern themselves. As at the Hampton Institute, he included in the Carlisle curriculum vocational training for boys and domestic science for girls, including chores around the school and producing goods for market.
They also produced a newspaper, had a well-regarded chorus and orchestra, and developed sports programs. The vocational training reflected the administration's understanding of skills needed at most reservations, which were located in rural areas, and reflected a society still based on agriculture.
In the summer students often lived with local farm families and townspeople, reinforcing their assimilation, and providing labor at low cost to the families. Carlisle and its curriculum became the model for the Bureau of Indian Affairs ; by there were 25 federally funded non-reservation schools in 15 states and territories, with a total enrollment of over 6, students.
Federal legislation required Native American children to be educated according to Anglo-American settler-colonial standards. Parents had to authorize their children's attendance at boarding schools, and if they refused officials could use coercion to gain a quota of students from any given reservation.
These schools ranged from those similar to the federal Carlisle Indian Industrial Schoolwhich became a model for BIA -run schools, to the many schools sponsored by religious denominations. In this period, when students arrived at boarding schools their lives altered dramatically. They were given short haircuts a source of shame for boys of many tribesuniforms, and English names; sometimes these were based on their own, other times they were assigned at random.
They were not allowed to speak their own languages, even between each other, and they were forced to attend church services and convert to Christianity. Discipline was stiff in many schools, and it often included chores, solitary confinement and corporal punishment including beatings with sticks, rulers and belts.
If we were not finished [scrubbing the dining room floors] when the 8 a. The Meriam Report noted that infectious disease was often widespread at the schools due to malnutrition, overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions, and students weakened by overwork.
The report said that death rates for Native American students were six and a half times higher than for other ethnic groups. Meriam Report Inthe Department of the Interior DOI commissioned the Brookings Institution to conduct a survey of the overall conditions of the American Indians and to assess federal programs and policies.
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Related to education of Native American children, it recommended that the government: Abolish The Uniform Course of Study, which taught only European-American cultural values; Educate younger children at community schools near home, and have older children attend non-reservation schools for higher grade work Have the Indian Service now Bureau of Indian Affairs provide American Indians the education and skills the need to adapt both in their own communities and United States society Despite the Meriam Report, attendance in Indian boarding schools generally grew throughout the first half of the 20th century and doubled in the s.
In60, American Indian children are estimated to have been enrolled in an Indian boarding school. This emphasized decentralization of students from boarding schools to community schools. As a result, many large Indian boarding schools closed in the s and early s. By9, American Indian children were living in Indian boarding school dormitories. Some Native Americans found their experiences and education at such schools to be valuable and have wanted to retain the schools as alternatives to reservation-based education[ according to whom?
Many others found their times at boarding schools to be repressive. Cultural assimilation of Native Americans The U. From until the U. Assimilation efforts included forcibly removing Native Americans from their families, converting them to Christianity, preventing them from learning or practising indigenous culture and customs, and living in a strict military fashion. When students arrived at boarding schools, the routine was typically the same. First, the students were stripped of their tribal clothing and their hair was cut.
Second, "[t]o instill the necessary discipline, the entire school routine was organized in martial fashion, and every facet of student life followed a strict timetable". One student recalled, "A small bell was tapped, and each of the pupils drew a chair from under the table.
Supposing this act meant that they were to be seated, I pulled out mine and at once slipped into it from one side. But when I turned my head, I saw that I was the only one seated, and all the rest at our table remained standing. Just as I began to rise, looking shyly around to see how chairs were to be used, a second bell was sounded. All were seated at last, and I had to crawl back into my chair again.
I heard a man's voice at one end of the hall, and I looked around to see him. But all the others hung their heads over their plates. As I glanced at the long chain of tables, I cause the eyes of a paleface woman upon me. Immediately I dropped my eyes, wondering why I was so keenly watched by the strange woman.
The man ceased his mutterings, and then a third bell was tapped. Everyone picked up his knife and fork and began eating. I began crying instead, for by this time I was afraid to venture anything more.
Some boarding schools worked to become small agrarian societies where the school became its own self-sufficient community. Anglo culture, boarding school administrations "forbade, whether in school or on reservation, tribal singing and dancing, along with the wearing of ceremonial and 'savage' clothes, the practice of native religions, the speaking of tribal languages, the acting out of traditional gender roles".
Educational administrators and teachers were instructed that "Indian girls were to be assured that, because their grandmothers did things in a certain way, there was no reason for them to do the same". However, "removal to reservations in the West in the early part of the century and the enactment of the Dawes or General Allotment Act in eventually took nearly 50 million acres of land from Indian control".
On-reservation schools were either taken over by Anglo leadership or destroyed in the process. Indian-controlled school systems became non-existent while "the Indians [were] made captives of federal or mission education".
Although schools sometimes used verbal corrective means to enforce assimilation, often more violent measures were used. One former student retold, "Intimidation and fear were very much present in our daily lives. For instance, we would cower from the abusive disciplinary practices of some superiors, such as the one who yanked my cousin's ear hard enough to tear it. After a nine-year-old girl was raped in her dormitory bed during the night, we girls would be so scared that we would jump into each other's bed as soon as the lights went out.
The sustained terror in our hearts further tested our endurance, as it was better to suffer with a full bladder and be safe than to walk through the dark, seemingly endless hallway to the bathroom.
When we were older, we girls anguished each time we entered the classroom of a certain male teacher who stalked and molested girls". People formerly separated by language, culture, and geography lived and worked together in residential schools. Students formed close bonds and enjoyed a rich cross-cultural change. Graduates of government schools often married former classmates, found employment in the Indian Service, migrated to urban areas, returned to their reservations and entered tribal politics.
Countless new alliances, both personal and political, were forged in government boarding schools. After release from Indian boarding schools, students were expected to return to their tribes and induce European assimilation there. Many students who returned to their reservations experienced alienation, language and cultural barriers, and confusion, in addition to the posttraumatic stress disorder and legacy of trauma resulting from abuse received in Indian boarding schools.
They struggled to respect elders, but also received resistance from family and friends when trying to initiate Anglo-American changes. General Richard Henry Pratt, who was a main administrator, began to recognize that "[t]o civilize the Indian, get him into civilization. To keep him civilized, let him stay.
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