In a recent study ofit was argued for the groundlessness of the theory by Poulakakis et al. Remains of the species were first discovered and recorded by Dorothea Bate in a cave in the Kyrenia hills of Cyprus in and reported in The Delos elephant is of similar size to a small Elephas antiquus, while the Naxos elephant is of similar size to Elephas melitensis. The remains from Kythnos, Serifos and Milos have not been described.
Dodecanese Islands[ edit ] On the island of Rhodesbones of an endemic dwarf elephant have been discovered. This elephant was similar in size to Elephas mnaidriensis. Two groups of remains of dwarf elephants have been found on the island of Tilos. They are similar in size to Elephas mnaidriensis and the smaller Elephas falconeri, but the two groups indicate sexual dimorphism.
However, this name refers to the dwarf elephants from the island of Malta. As a result, since no migration route between the two islands can be proved, this name should not be used when referring to the elephant remnants from Tilos. The species has now been described as Elephas tiliensis. The results of this research are consistent with previous morphological reports, according to which Palaeoloxodon is more closely related to Elephas than to Loxodonta or Mammuthus.
It was the latest paleoloxodontine to survive in Europe.
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They did not become extinct until around BC, so this elephant survived well into the Holocene. An exhibition is available at the Municipality of Tilos Island, soon to be transferred to the new building near Charkadio Cave. Channel Islands of California[ edit ] The Columbian mammoth Mammuthus columbi produced a separate, isolated population at the end of the Pleistocene. One of these isolated groups was formed on the Channel Islands of Californiamost likely about 40, years ago although the time of isolation is not fully known.
Selective forces on the Channel Islands resulted in smaller animals, forming a new species, the pygmy mammoth Mammuthus exilis.
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Paul Island shares this characteristic of geographic isolation, implying that human hunting may have played a role in the disappearance of the woolly mammoth. During the last ice age, woolly mammoths Mammuthus primigenius lived on Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean and survived until BC, the most recent survival of any known mammoth population.
Wrangel Island is thought to have become separated from the mainland by BC. Around the early Middle Pleistocene these dwarfed elephants were replaced by new immigrants of larger to intermediate sizes.
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Flores[ edit ] The present understanding of the succession of Stegodon species on Flores is that endemic dwarfs, represented by the Early Pleistocene species Stegodon sondaarii, became extinct aroundyears ago.
These dwarf forms were then replaced by the medium to large-sized Stegodon florensis, a species closely related to the Stegodon trigonocephalus group found both in Java and in the islands of biogeographical Wallaceaseparated by deep water from the Asian and Australian continental shelves. This Stegodon species became extinct about 12, years ago, presumably because of a volcanic eruption. Sulawesi[ edit ] The dwarfed Stegodon sompoensis lived during the Pleistocene on the island of Sulawesi.
They had a shoulder height of only 1. Central Java[ edit ] Inthe endemic dwarf elephant was found in the Semedo area, TegalCentral Javaso it is named Stegodon pygmy semedoensis. The main setting of the series is the eponymous mining spaceship Red Dwarf. They are joined by a creature known only as Catthe last member of a race of humanoid felines that evolved in the ship's hold from Lister's pregnant cat during the 3 million years that Lister was in stasis.
The crew encounters phenomena such as time distortions, faster-than-light travel, mutant diseases and strange lifeforms all evolved from Earth, because the series has no aliens that had developed in the intervening millions of years. Early in series VII, Rimmer departs due to actor Chris Barrie's commitments and is replaced by Kristine KochanskiLister's long-term love interest, from an alternate universe.
At the end of Series VII, we learn that Kryten's service nanobotswhich had abandoned him years earlier, were behind the theft of the Red Dwarf at the end of series five. At the beginning of the eighth series, Kryten's nanobots reconstruct the Red Dwarf, which they had broken down into its constituent atoms. The series ends with a metal-eating virus loose on Red Dwarf. The entire crew evacuates save the main cast Lister, Rimmer, Cat, Kryten and Kochanskiwhose fate is unresolved in a cliffhanger ending.
It has not been confirmed whether the Rimmer onboard ship is the one who originally left, the revived version, or a third incarnation entirely; however, episodes have alluded to him remembering events from both previous incarnations' lives. Characters and actors[ edit ] Main article: He was the lowest-ranking of the crew members on the ship before the accident.
Arnold Judas Rimmer Bsc Ssc "Bronze swimming certificate" and "Silver swimming certificate"played by Chris Barriewas the second-lowest ranking member of the crew while they were all alive. He is a fussy, bureaucraticneurotic coward who, by failing to replace a drive plate properly, is responsible for the Red Dwarf cadmium II accident that kills the entire crew including himself except Lister. Nevertheless, Holly chose him to be the ship's one available hologram  because he considered him the person most likely to keep Lister sane.
He comes face to face with Death at the end of the series, whom he kicks in the groin. From the Back to Earth specials onwards, he is once again the original hologram Rimmer, with no explanation as to why he returned from being Ace or what happened to the human Rimmer from series VIII. From left to right: The Catplayed by Danny John-Julesis a humanoid creature who evolved from the offspring of Lister's smuggled pet cat Frankenstein.
Cat is concerned with little other than sleeping, eating, and fawning over his appearance, and tends not to socialise with other members of the crew in early episodes. He becomes more influenced by his human companions over time, and begins to resemble a stylish, self-centred human.
It is later revealed that, unlike his human companions, he has a "cool" sounding pulse, six nipples, and colour-coordinated internal organs.
Kryten is a Service Mechanoid and when first encountered by the crew, he was bound by his "behavioural protocols", but Lister gradually encouraged him to break his programming and think for himself.
His change in appearance between the two actors is explained away by an accident involving Lister's spacebike and Lister having to repair him. Holly has a functional IQ ofalthough this is severely depleted by the three million years of runtime and lack of repairs.
Holly is left alone after the radiation accident that kills Rimmer and the rest of the crew except for Lister and the Cat. The computer had developed "computer senility" before the radiation accident, rendering it functionally inert. The change in appearance for series III is explained by Holly having changed his face to resemble that of a computer from a parallel universe "with whom he'd once fallen madly in love". She joins Lister and the crew after the link to her own dimension collapses.
Back to Earth specials, Lister believes her dead, but it is later revealed that Kryten the sole witness to her "death" had lied to Lister.
Kochanski had instead fled the ship in a Blue Midget when it became clear Lister's complete lack of self-respect and indulgence on excesses was slowly killing him, which greatly depressed her. Lister is advised by fans of the television series to find her in "the next series" and to make amends.
However the character does not appear in any of the later series. Production[ edit ] The first series aired on BBC2 in Concept and commission[ edit ] The concept for the show was originally developed from the sketch-series Dave Hollins: Many visual and character elements bear similarities to the Trident nuclear submarine BBC documentary "Defence of the Realm".
Having written the pilot script inthe former Spitting Image writers pitched their unique concept to the BBC, but it was rejected on fears that a science fiction sitcom would not be popular. He was approached by the production team for his opinion about the "Cat" character, as they were concerned it may be considered by people as racist.
This was partly due to his "cool" exterior, dedicated research reading Desmond Morris ' book Catwatchingand his showing up in character, wearing his father's s-style zoot suit.
He left before series V due to a scheduling clash he ended up directing a show starring his wife, Ruby Wax so Juliet May took over as director. All eight series were broadcast on BBC Two. The first two series used a relatively sombre instrumental version of the closing theme for the opening titles; from series III onwards this switched to a more upbeat version.
Goodall also wrote music for the show's various songs, including " Tongue Tied ", with lyrics written by Grant and Naylor. The remastering included replacing model shots with computer graphics, cutting certain dialogue and scenes,  re-filming Norman Lovett's Holly footage, creating a consistent set of opening titles, replacing music and creating ambient sound effects with a digital master.
Doug Naylor confirmed in that the BBC decided not to renew the series as they preferred to work on other projects. In return, you pledge not to restrict others' use of these seeds or their derivatives by patents or other means, and to include this pledge with any transfer of these seeds or their derivatives. Peas are sown in spring - they're pretty hardy, and we sow our first ones in modules in a cold greenhouse in Februaryplanting them out as soon as they're an inch or so high if you sow outdoors, mice tend to steal the seed.
In mild areas, you can sow hardier varieties in autumn for early crops the next year, though we've found that a spring sowing usually catches up and crops only a little later. Tall peas are are a little more work in that you need to provide supports,but you get a much, much bigger yield from a given space. Beware that some of the older varieties will grow to 6 foot plus in fertile soil! Dwarf plants about 3 ft tall that make extremely sweet peas right at the start of the season.
It has nice dark healthy foliage and bears a decent number of pods. You'll want to grow some other peas as well, for its so early that it finishes by the start of summer, but it is great for delicious peas before any others crop.
It really stands out in terms of how quickly it makes peas, and has a great taste as well - both fresh and cooked. It's a traditional early variety that we have chosen because as well as being early and productive, the peas hold well - they stay sweet for a long time on the plant if you don't get round to picking them.
Very high sugar levels. Ready a few days later than Oskar, but still very quick to crop. We loved it the first time we grew it but it has taken several years to get it into the catalogue.
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Exceptionally tender and well-flavoured. Quick growing gourmet pea, very rare. The name is from the French for a special type of pruning knife, reflecting the remarkable sickle-shape of the pods! It has smooth rather than wrinkled seeds, so it can be sown early without risk of rot, but pick small for sweetness. Fast growing, curved pods, slightly flattened sweet peas. It grows to around 4 - 5 foot tall, and looks stunning on a wigwam or peasticks for a decorative feature that also produces lots of tasty peas.
Given to us by Vivi Logan, we are delighted to add this to our collection. Grown for us by Daniel Blackburn in Pembrokeshire.
Order PeRK - 50 seed very rare! Telephone Pea very tall A well known and much loved tall pea - six foot plus - that we recommend as an early-maincrop pea. It hasn't really changed from the description of 'Carter's Telephone Pea' in Vilmorin's famous book of on vegetable gardening.
It has heavy yields of large pods with sweet, non-starchy peas inside. We find that the pods always swell up a bit before the peas fill out, so don't be fooled into picking too early! We find it's best to check a couple of pods first before picking lots - not too much of a hardship! Wrinkled seed, stays sweet longer in pods - but don't sow in cold wet conditions.