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Rather, I am grateful to him and to them for articulating their position so clearly, thus allowing a proper analysis. Such an analysis is important for a number of reasons: It led the late Ottomans, particularly in the time of Mahmud II and the Tanzimat, to try and make a modern state precisely as outlined in the document that is the basis for this article.
In the subsequent period of the decline and disappearance of the Ottoman sultanate and then of their khalifate because of their desire to implement such a state and their embrace of technique and fatefully banking and usurious loans, and the appearance of what Shaykh Dr. The Moguls similarly were accustomed to ruling a widely disparate population of all sorts of cultures. The Ottomans took seriously their role of being the sultans of the different millats, Jews, Christians and Muslims.
The Islamic dawla was never intended to comprise only Muslims. The 19th century can well be considered the epoch in which, subsequent to the French Revolution, both Muslims and non-Muslims were seized with the irrational desire for national states, a desire whose results were disastrous for many millions of people. The second conclusion I would draw in this introduction is that the dictatorships with which the Arab world in particular but the Muslim world in general have been plagued are not merely historical aberrations imposed from without by cynical colonial and ex-colonial powers but also represent precisely the aspirations of a large number of Muslims.
They of course did not wish to be tyrannised, but tyranny was the inevitable consequence of the conception of nation-state they had formed. It is the paradox of the rational project that the declared aim is so luminous but the result so appalling.
Thus it is of paramount importance that this misconception be exposed. Indeed we are grateful for that very failure, since if they were to become realities they would be totalitarian models that would appal the world.
All of that calls for the restoration of the d? If anyone knows of such a hadith, I would be very interested to learn of it]. Nevertheless, later muslims used the term, the Ottomans among others.
The Ottomans were known as the Ottoman dawla and not the Ottoman Empire even though a word for Empire exists both in Arabic and Osmanlica. However, the Ottomans chose the term dawla specifically in order not to use the term Empire. Its most essential feature in the modern world is that of a governing entity that legislates, i. The concept of the Islamic state first arose among Islamic modernists, so let us first examine the issue of Islamic modernism or modernist Islam.
It has various roots, but in essence it stems from a misunderstanding of Western dominance over the lands of Islam, which itself issues from a complete misreading of western history and the nature of Western society.
They mistakenly assume that Muslims can regain some power by taking those elements from the West which they think led to the apparent demise of Islam politically. The flaw in this is because there is a total misunderstanding of the nature of Western society and the modern state.
The very essence of the modern state is that it is a body which borrows enormous sums of money from banking institutions. This is needed desperately by the banks because they are in great need of large borrowers who will create grand projects and return the interest they owe their shareholders and depositors.
There is tremendous pressure on bankers to put their funds to profitable use. Today those large borrowers are the different nation-states and the great multinational corporations.
Then the state taxes its citizens to maintain the interest payments on the loans — the national debt [which must never be repaid]. The most fundamental mistake we make is when we think that the state taxes in order to pay for all its services.
Rather the state taxes to keep paying the interest on its debts.
Many of the huge state-services: It should be noted that a great number of matters: The awqaf were properties which had been returned to the ownership of Allah by private individuals and were administered by other private individuals for the benefit of whatever purpose they were dedicated. Thus in nineteenth century Turkey, over sixty percent of land was waqf property. Of course, Attaturk nationalised all of it, i. The rest of the muslim world has followed his lead.
While still a Christian he visited Madinah, and entered the mosque while the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was reciting the ayah in which Allah, exalted is He, mentions that the Jews and the Christians take their rabbis and priests as lords apart from Allah.
When he spoke to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, he objected to this and said that they had not taken their priests as lords. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, replied that the rabbis and priests had declared some matters to be halal and some haram and that they, the Jews and the Christians, had taken those matters to be halal and haram, and that thus they had taken the rabbis and monks as their gods.
In other words, making things halal and haram — legal and illegal — is the prerogative of Allah and His Messenger, and if anyone else does so it is an act of shirk.
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Thus it is entirely irrelevant whether a single tyrannical individual [an autocrat] makes the laws or a committee of people [democrats], since they are arrogating powers which belong to Allah, which is an act of shirk.
Islamic law-making is another matter, since the purpose is to find out what is most pleasing to Allah in any particular case, and for that recourse is had to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to the consensus of the people of knowledge, to the existing body of rulings and fatwas and finally to reasoning based on the aforementioned.
In all of that, the intention is to follow an investigative approach until the judgement is reached that is closest to the revelation.
All of these concepts are based on the idea that we can Islamicise things which are fundamentally alien to Islam, and Allah knows best. The reply to the above is given below with my interpolated comments between the lines: Islam, in its capacity as the ideology of the State, society and life, has made the State and ruling a part of it.
Therefore, do you think that Islam is a being, a thinking rational being which makes decisions and does things? And Islam ordered the Muslims to establish the State and ruling, and to rule by the rules of Islam. Listen to the old scholars. They spoke like that to avoid any kind of shirk. These ayat are very well known.
Every muslim man ought to be ready to fight jihad, just as every muslim man ought to return to his trade and his ordinary life after peace is concluded. There is no salary for fighting, but there is a share in the spoils of victory.
Many such crimes permit of retaliation qisas from the person affected or his relatives. Although the amir must administer such retaliation, yet it is not because it is a crime against the state, but because he can do so without passion or vengeance, and Allah knows best. All of them have been revealed in order to rule by them, to apply them and execute them.
Thus of the cases of adultery that happened in Madinah, most of the records of stoning to death — there are only a couple — relate to penitent adulterers who confessed and demanded their punishment, and who have high honour because of that.
That sentence on them, is not a punishment in that sense, but a purification so that they can meet their Lord without a reckoning for that wrong action. Indeed, we want the khalifa restored, and of that there is no doubt. What kept muslim society healthy, when it was healthy, was that each man and woman took responsibility for themselves and for everything around them, and if necessary for putting the ruler himself straight.
People who are themselves khulafa over their own lives, deserve to be ruled by a khalifa who is a successor of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. That is the truth, and so let us return to that noble pattern. To do so, we need also to understand what they understood and to see what they saw, and a part of that is to use language in the way they used it and words with the same meanings that they used them. All of this indicates that Islam is a system for ruling, state, society and life.
Islam cannot have an active presence in life except if it was existent in a State which implements its rules.
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There is no doubt that muslims must live in community and that a vital part of that is the appointment of a leader and then obedience to him. Thus, Islam is an Aqeeda and a system, where ruling and the State are a part of it. The reality is that in Madinah, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was able to bring about a society of people who all took responsibility for their lives and for the lives of their neighbours and finally for the lives of humanity at large.
Look at the faces of the old people who have been consigned to being useless at the end of their lives. Islamic governance is distinguished by being very minimal.
The ruler has some few obligations: He should clarify the new moons and announce the beginning and end of Ramadan. He should appoint qadis. That is the Sunnah, after all. Islam would not have an active presence except when it has a State that applies its rules in all situations.
There is no doubt that there are ahkam — rulings that can only be applied with the existence of rulership. But what about all the other qualities of Islam: Again there is no doubt that muslims must be in obedience to an amir for Islam to come into full effect, but if the only thing is the state and the ahkam-rulings of Islam, then we are living a machine life.
System is a word for machines not for humans. Its State is a human, political State and not a priestly or theological one. There is nothing holy about it nor is its leader described as infallible. The Structure of the Ruling System in Islam The ruling system in Islam is a system which defines the structure, description, foundations, pillars and apparatus of the State. It defines the basis on which the State is established and the thoughts, concepts and criterions according to which the affairs are looked after, and the constitution and canons which it applies.
There is no constitution in Islam. However, it is clear that constitutionalism has put the ordinary person even further from the people who hold power today than ever before. It is clear that the constitutions of the modern world have put a group of people in power, over whom we have no control at all and to whom we have no access, people who are only responsible to banks and corporations.
The Islamic ruling system is a special and distinct system, for a State which is special and distinct, fundamentally different from all the existing ruling systems in the world. It is a system established on the basis of the unity of the State and unity of the Khilafah.
It is not permitted for the Muslims to have at any one given time more than one State on earth, or have more than one Khaleefah.
On this matter, there are different views. A number of the people of knowledge do permit the existence of more than one khalifah, if the zones of their political power are far enough apart. The truth is that since early in the second century of Islam, there has never been a single Islamic political entity, and there have been a plurality of khulafa, sultans and amirs. But this is within a single community. In the age before telecommunications and air transport, then it was inconceivable for one person to rule both Malaysia and Sudan, both Tatarstan and Yemen.
At times, there were exceptional people such as Yusuf ibn Tashfin of the historical Murabitun who went out of his way to send Qadi Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi to Baghdad to pledge his allegiance to the Khalifah.
But even this was largely a symbolic gesture, since they took several years to accomplish the journey, and Yusuf was in effect ruler of Andalusia and the Maghrib, whether or not he pledged allegiance. However, he wanted to be correct in this matter, may Allah be pleased with him. The practice of the muslims has been established for around 1, years that there has not been a single united khalifah, and there are theoretical views among the fuqaha, which are quoted by Ibn Khaldun in his Muqaddimah, that such a state of affairs is acceptable.
The system of ruling in Islam is not monarchical 8 The form of ruling in Islam is not monarchical. The monarchical system of government adopts a hereditary rule where sons inherit the throne from their fathers.