Later inthe Culture Division was placed under the Ministry of Information, at the same time, as a consequence of the growth of organisational activities among youths, a Youth Division was formed to inculcate and supervise these activities under the ministry. Besides that, a Sports Division was also formed under the Ministry of Information, the Ministry of Youth and Sports was only formed on 15 May in conjunction with the National Youth Day celebration of that year.
Since then, the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports was reverted to its name which, today, known as the Ministry of Youth.
Ministry of Youth and Sports was given the mandate to implement the policies of the Malaysian government, particularly in the areas of Youth and Sports development 2.
Government of Malaysia — The Government of Malaysia refers to the Federal Government or national government authority based in the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and the federal executive based in Putrajaya. Malaysia is a federation of 13 states operating within a constitutional monarchy under the Westminster parliamentary system and is categorised as a representative democracy, the federal government of Malaysia adheres to and is created by the Federal Constitution of Malaysia, the supreme law of the land.
The federal government adopts the principle of separation of powers under Article of the Federal Constitution, the state governments in Malaysia also have their respective executive and legislative bodies. The judicial system in Malaysia is a court system operating uniformly throughout the country.
The federal or central government is the authority in Malaysia having its base in Putrajaya. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Malaysia who is known as the head of government. The bicameral parliament consists of the house, the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat and the upper house.
All seventy Senate members sit for three-year terms, twenty-six are elected by the thirteen state assemblies, the members of the Dewan Rakyat are elected from single-member districts by universal adult suffrage. The parliament follows a multi-party system and the body is elected through a first-past-the-post system. Parliament has a mandate of five years by law. The king may dissolve parliament at any time and usually does so upon the advice of the Prime Minister, the cabinet is chosen from among members of both houses of Parliament and is responsible to that body.
The Executive branch of the government consists of the Prime Minister as the head of the government, followed by the various ministers of the Cabinet.
The highest court in the system is the Federal Court, followed by the Court of Appeal. The subordinate courts in each of these jurisdictions include Sessions Courts, Magistrates Courts, Malaysia also has a Special Court to hear cases brought by or against all Royalty. The Prime Minister of Malaysia is the elected head of government of Malaysia. He heads the Cabinet, whose members are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong advice of the prime minister, the Prime Minister and his Cabinet shall be collectively responsible to Parliament.
The Prime Ministers Department is the body and ministry in which the Prime Minister exercises its functions, each state governments in Malaysia is created by the respective state constitutions. Each state has a state legislative chamber whose members are elected from single-member constituencies 3. Putrajaya — Putrajaya, officially the Federal Territory of Putrajaya, is a planned city and the federal administrative centre of Malaysia.
The seat of government was shifted in from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya, because of overcrowding, Kuala Lumpur remains Malaysias national capital, and is the seat of the King and the Parliament, and is the countrys commercial and financial centre. In Sanskrit, putra means prince or male child, and jaya means success or victory, the development of Putrajaya started in the early s, today, major landmarks have been completed and the population is expected to grow in the near future.
Its land area of acres d expanded to 8, acres, the new city was proposed to be located between Kuala Lumpur and the new Kuala Lumpur International Airport. Two areas were proposed, Prang Besar and Janda Baik of Pahang, the Federal government negotiated with the state of Selangor on the prospect of another Federal Territory.
In the mids the Federal government paid an amount of money to Selangor for approximately 11, acres of land in Prang Besar.
As a result of land purchase, the state of Selangor now completely surrounds two Federal territories within its borders, namely Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. The plan incorporated a network of spaces and wide boulevards.
On 1 February Tun Dr. However, construction of the Putrajaya Monorail, which was intended to be the citys metro system, was suspended owing to high costs, one of the monorail suspension bridges in Putrajaya remains unused. In April the Putrajaya government signed a letter of intent with the government of Sejong City in South Korea to mark co-operation between the two cities, as of almost all of Malaysias governmental ministries had relocated to Putrajaya.
The only ministries remaining in Kuala Lumpur were the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Ministry of Defence, alamanda Shopping Centre, located near the governmental ministries in Precinct 1, was opened to serve people who work, play and live in Putrajaya 4. Malaysian ringgit — The Malaysian ringgit is the currency of Malaysia. It is divided into sen, the ringgit is issued by the Bank Negara Malaysia.
In modern usage ringgit is used almost solely for the currency, to differentiate between the three currencies, the Malaysian currency is referred to as Ringgit Malaysia, hence the official abbreviation and currency symbol RM. Internationally, the ISO currency code for Malaysian ringgit is MYR, the Malay names ringgit and sen were officially adopted as the sole official names in August Previously they had been known officially as dollars and cents in English and ringgit and sen in Malay, in the northern states of Peninsular Malaysia, denominations of 10 sen are called kupang in Malay, e.
In Novemberfive months after the introduction of the Malaysian dollar and this ended on 8 Maywhen the Malaysian government withdrew from the agreement. As of 4 Septemberthe ringgit has yet to regain its value circa against the Singapore dollar, the euro, the Australian dollar, and the British pound. On 21 JulyBank Negara announced the end of the peg to the US dollar immediately after Chinas announcement of the end of the peg to the US dollar.
According to Bank Negara, Malaysia allows the ringgit to operate in a float against several major currencies. Following the end of the peg, the ringgit appreciated to as high as 3.
The ringgit had also enjoyed a period of appreciation against the Hong Kong dollar, the initial stability of the ringgit in the lates had led to considerations to reintroduce the currency to foreign trading. As a result, the US dollar appreciated significantly to close at 3.
The ringgit spiked at 3.
The first series of sen coins were introduced in in denominations of 1 sen,5 sen,10 sen,20 sen,50 sen, followed by the introduction of the 1 ringgit coin in 5.
In Januaryhe was appointed as a Councillor of the Seberang Perai Municipal Council and he writes regularly for Penang Monthly as well as contributes opinion pieces to prominent Malaysian online news portals such as Malaysiakini and the Malaysian Insider. Malay language — Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family.
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It has a status in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia. However, in areas of central to southern Sumatra where the language is indigenous, Indonesians refer to it as Bahasa Melayu and consider it one of their regional languages. There are also several Malay trade and creole languages which are based on a lingua franca derived from Classical Malay, as well as Macassar Malay, Malay historical linguists agree on the likelihood of the Malay homeland being in western Borneo stretching to the Bruneian coast.
A form known as Proto-Malay language was spoken in Borneo at least by BCE and was, it has been argued, the ancestral language of all subsequent Malayan languages. The history of the Malay language can be divided into five periods, Old Malay, the Transitional Period, the Malacca Period, Late Modern Malay and it is not clear that Old Malay was actually the ancestor of Classical Malay, but this is thought to be quite possible. Batenburg on November 29, at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, on the banks of the Tatang and it is a small stone of 45 by 80 centimetres.
The earliest surviving manuscript in Malay is the Tanjong Tanah Law in post-Pallava letters and this 14th-century pre-Islamic legal text produced in the Adityawarman era of Dharmasraya, a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that arose after the end of Srivijayan rule in Sumatra.
The laws were for the Minangkabau people, who still live in the highlands of Sumatra. The Malay language came into use as the lingua franca of the Malacca Sultanate. During this period, the Malay language developed rapidly under the influence of Islamic literature, the development changed the nature of the language with massive infusion of Arabic, Malayalam and Sanskrit vocabularies, called Classical Malay.
Under the Sultanate of Malacca the language evolved into a form recognisable to speakers of modern Malay, however, there is no connection between Malaccan Malay as used on Riau and the Riau vernacular. The letters show sign of non-native usage, the Ternateans used the unrelated Ternate language, Malay was used solely as a lingua franca for inter-ethnic communications.
Malay is a member of the Austronesian family of languages, which includes languages from Southeast Asia, malagasy, a geographic outlier spoken in Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, is also a member of this language family. Although each language of the family is mutually unintelligible, their similarities are rather striking, many roots have come virtually unchanged from their common ancestor, Proto-Austronesian language 7.
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Youth — Youth is the time of life when one is young, but often means the time between childhood and adulthood. It is also defined as the appearance, freshness, vigor, spirit, Youth is an experience that may shape an individuals level of dependency, which can be marked in various ways according to different cultural perspectives.
Personal experience is marked by an individuals cultural norms or traditions, around the world, the English terms youth, adolescent, teenager, kid, and young person are interchanged, often meaning the same thing, but they are occasionally differentiated. Youth can be referred to as the time of life when one is young and this involves childhood, and the time of life which is neither childhood nor adulthood, but rather somewhere in between. Youth also identifies a particular mindset of attitude, as in He is very youthful, for certain uses, such as employment statistics, the term also sometimes refers to individuals from the ages of 14 to However, the term refers to a specific age range during a specific developmental period in a persons life.
The UN also recognizes that this varies without prejudice to other age groups listed by states such as A useful distinction within the UN itself can be made between teenagers and young adults, while seeking to impose some uniformity on statistical approaches, the UN itself is aware of contradictions between approaches in its own statutes.
Hence under the definition children are defined as those under the age of 14 while under the Convention on the Rights of the Child, those under the age of 18 are regarded as children. The UN also states they are aware that several definitions exist for youth within UN entities such as Youth Habitat- Robert Kennedy Youth is the stage of constructing the self-concept. The self-concept of youth is influenced by several such as peers, lifestyle, gender. It is the time of a life in which they make choices which will affect their future.
In much of sub-Saharan Africa, the youth is associated with young men from 15 to 30 or 35 years of age. Youth in Nigeria includes all members of the Federal Republic of Nigeria aged 18—35, many African girls experience youth as a brief interlude between the onset of puberty and marriage and motherhood.
But in urban settings, poor women are considered youth much longer. Varying culturally, the constructions of youth in Latin America. In Vietnam, widespread notions of youth are sociopolitical constructions for both sexes between the ages of 15 and 35, in Brazil, the term youth refers to people of both sexes from 15 to 29 years old. This age bracket reflects the influence on Brazilian law of international organizations like the World Health Organization and it is also shaped by the notion of adolescence that has entered everyday life in Brazil through a discourse on childrens rights 8.
Sport — Usually the contest or game is between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other. Some sports allow a tie game, others provide tie-breaking methods, to one winner. A number of such two-sided contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion, many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of participants, either in teams or competing as individuals.
In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete, each against each other, however, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. Sports are usually governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, winning can be determined by physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first.
It can also be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, records of performance are often kept, and for popular sports, this information may be widely announced or reported in sport news. Sport is also a source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues.
The worlds most accessible and practised sport is running, while football is the most popular spectator sport. The word Sport comes from the Old French desport meaning leisure, other meanings include gambling and events staged for the purpose of gambling, hunting, and games and diversions, including ones that require exercise.
Rogets defines the noun sport as an activity engaged in for relaxation, the singular term sport is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept, with sports used to describe multiple activities. American English uses sports for both terms, the precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources.
They also recognise that sport can be physical, primarily mind, predominantly motorised, primarily co-ordination. The inclusion of sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted. Whilst SportAccord recognises a number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports.
According to Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2, other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity.
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For instance, the Council of Europe include all forms of physical exercise, in competitive events, participants are graded or classified based on their result and often divided into groups of comparable performance 9. Recreation — Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time.