Human multiple births[ edit ] In humans, the average length of pregnancy two weeks fewer than gestation is 38 weeks with a single fetus. This average decreases for each additional fetus: With the decreasing gestation time, the risks from immaturity at birth and subsequent viability increase with the size of the sibling group.
Only as of the twentieth century have more than four all survived infancy. Recent history has also seen increasing numbers of multiple births. Twin Twins are by far the most common form of multiple births in humans. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report more thansets of twins out of 3. Play media Monoamniotic triplets as seen on ultrasound  Identical triplets come from a monozygotic pregnancy, three fetuses from one egg.
The most common set, strictly fraternal triplets, comes from a polyzygotic pregnancy of three eggs. Between these types, triplets that include an identical monozygotic pair of siblings plus a fraternal sibling are the result of a dizygotic pregnancy, where one zygote divides into two fetuses and the other doesn't.
Triplets are far less common than twins, according to the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, accounting for only about sets in 3. The odds of having identical triplets is unclear. News articles and other non-scientific organizations give odds from one in 60, to one in million pregnancies.
As ofthere were approximately sets recorded worldwide. Quadruplet births are becoming increasingly common due to fertility treatments. There are around 70 sets of all-identical quadruplets worldwide. Many sets of quadruplets contain a mixture of identical and fraternal siblings, such as three identical and one fraternal, two identical and two fraternal, or two pairs of identicals.
One famous set of identical quadruplets was the Genain quadrupletsall of whom developed schizophrenia.
Quadruplets are sometimes referred to as "quads" in Britain. Quintuplets occur naturally in 1 in 55, births. Quintuplets are sometimes referred to as "quins" in the UK and "quints" in North America.
Another well-known set of sextuplets is the Gosselin sextuplets, born May 10, in Hershey, Pennsylvania. Very high-order multiple births[ edit ] Inthe McCaughey septuplets were born in Carlisle, Iowa. Multiple births of as many as eight babies have been born alive, the first set on record to the Chukwu family in Texas in ; one died and seven survived.
Ina second set, the Suleman octupletswere born in Bellflower, California. There have been cases of human pregnancies that started out with ten, eleven, twelve or fifteen fetuses, but no instances of live births. The pregnancies of the 10, 11 and 15 fetuses have all resulted from fertility medications and assisted reproductive technology ART. However, there has been one documented case when 12 fetuses were conceived naturally.
You may improve this articlediscuss the issue on the talk pageor create a new articleas appropriate. December The frequency of N multiple births from natural pregnancies has been given as approximately 1: US figures for were: For reasons that are not yet known, the older a woman is, the more likely she is to have a multiple birth naturally.
It is theorized that this is due to the higher level of follicle-stimulating hormone that older women sometimes have as their ovaries respond more slowly to FSH stimulation. Before the advent of ovulation-stimulating drugs, triplets were quite rare approximately 1 in births and higher-order births much rarer still.
Younger patients who undergo treatment with fertility medication containing artificial FSHfollowed by intrauterine inseminationare particularly at risk for multiple births of higher order. The Gosselin sextuplets with their parents and sisters, cover of KoreAmMay Certain factors appear to increase the likelihood that a woman will naturally conceive multiples.
Risks[ edit ] Premature birth and low birth weight[ edit ] Babies born from multiple-birth pregnancies are much more likely to result in premature birth than those from single pregnancies. Monochorionic multiples may even be monoamnioticsharing the same amniotic sacresulting in risk of umbilical cord compression and nuchal cord. In very rare cases, there may be conjoined twinspossibly impairing function of internal organs. Mortality rate stillbirth [ edit ] Multiples are also known to have a higher mortality rate.
It is more common for multiple births to be stillborn, while for singletons the risk is not as high. A literary review on multiple pregnancies shows a study done on one set each of septuplets and octuplets, two sets of sextuplets, 8 sets of quintuplets, 17 sets of quadruplets, and sets of triplets.
By doing this study, Hammond found that the mean gestational age how many weeks when birthed at birth was This shows that stillbirth happens usually 3—5 weeks before the woman reaches full term and also that for sextuplets or higher it almost always ends in death of the fetuses. Medical practitioners are doing this by limiting the number of embryos per embryo transfer to one or two.
That way, the risks for the mother and fetuses are decreased. The appropriate number of embryos to be transferred depends on the age of the woman, whether it is the first, second or third full IVF cycle attempt and whether there are top-quality embryos available.
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